Stephenson's Tubular Bridge
The railway tracks past Conwy Castle disappear into two iron “tunnels” which are also a bridge over the estuary. This was a pioneering design by renowned engineer Robert Stephenson (1803-59), although he depended on the help of others including Isambard Kingdom Brunel and William Fairbairn. The tubes were constructed on the shore, floated into position on pontoons and – with numerous setbacks – jacked up to the correct height. The painting, shown here by kind permission of the Science & Society Picture Library/National Railway Museum, shows the second tube ready for lifting.
Stephenson himself rode the first locomotive to cross, on 18 April 1848. The first tube opened to traffic on 1 May that year. The second tube was placed in position in January 1849.
Supporting piers were added, one each side of the estuary channel, in 1899. The trains enter the tubes through tall masonry portals, designed to complement the adjacent castle. The photo, courtesy of the SSPL/NRM, shows a Holyhead-bound express emerging from the bridge, probably in the 1930s.
The full span of the tubes is best seen from the south, near the bowling green off Llanrwst Road. The bridge is now owned and maintained by Network Rail.
Stephenson built three other bridges with the same principles, including a very long one in Canada, but only Conwy survives as a tubular bridge. Brunel adapted the tubular principle for his rail bridge at Chepstow.
Also in this vicinity is a goods crane constructed by the London & North Western Railway at Crewe. The railway occupied a wide ledge built out over the north bank of the Gyffin river. Between the main lines and the town walls was a yard and goods shed, where freight was loaded or unloaded.
FOOTNOTES: More about Stephenson’s tubular bridges
Website for Network Rail archives - Chester & Holyhead Railway
Website of Science & Society Picture Library - prints available of the above images and many others